【體路專欄】在 Movement As Medicine 網站上分享一篇文章「WHY AND HOW WE PROGRAM BREATHING EXERCISES」,關注「呼吸」的主題,在此做簡單的介紹。呼吸的功能被我們身體的自主神經系統所控制,而自主控制意指身體能有效地調節呼吸,而我們不用有意識地去思考每一次的呼吸。基本上,每天大部份的呼吸都由橫隔膜與肺部在自動巡航(Cruise Control)。

圖: http://planetsehat.com/

圖: http://planetsehat.com/

自主控制的光明面是我們不必提醒自己每天要進行20000次的吸氣及吐氣,予許我們能夠專注在生活中其它更令人興奮的事物上。不幸的是,我們的呼吸模式缺乏意識(Consciousness)也將使我們陷入困境。

而日常生活中所發展的姿勢錯誤將導致沒有效率的呼吸。姿勢與呼吸的代償會激發情緒緊張、受傷、不良動作模式及疾病的反應。雖然這情況不常被查察,但不正常的呼吸模式會有破壞我們身體的潛力。呼吸穩定肌受到抑制時,如橫隔膜、腹橫肌(TVA)、多裂肌、腹斜肌及骨盆底肌,這會迫使身體依賴其它效率較差的肌肉在維持呼吸。大部份常見的呼吸功能障礙會迫使上方(肩關節)及下方(髖關節)周圍肌肉來產生補償。

而上述的結果會在以下三個地方中,至少一處會出現疼痛/僵緊:

1) 脖子/肩膀(特別是斜角肌(Scalenes)、胸鎖乳突肌(Sternocleidomastoid, SCM)、胸小肌(Pectoralis Minor))
2) 骶髂關節/腰椎
3) 髖關節前側

最常見的情況是,我發現髂肌(Illiacus)、 斜角肌(Scalenes)及胸小肌處在過度活躍及疼痛,當他們產生代償來協助呼吸。最糟糕的是,缺乏效率的呼吸有可能干擾一個化學驅動的正向循環,使你原本已經功能障礙的狀況更加嚴重。反覆缺乏效率的氣體交換會讓身體內 PH 值的轉變。一些研究已經證實,酸性的 pH值,相對於正常值會帶給軟組織結構不適及疼痛反應。最值得注意的是,酸性pH值會刺激Bradykinin(一種發炎前驅物)的產生,增加疼痛敏感度閾值(pain threshold sensitivity)及促進緊繃的帶狀區(taut band)的發展,引起激痛點。

為了重新”鍛鍊”我們的呼吸肌肉並且發展有效率的核心功能。我們必須練習呼吸模式,重新調節呼吸肌群(橫隔膜、腹橫肌、骨盆底肌、腹斜肌及多裂肌)…

有幾個呼吸的技術…

PRONE BREATHING

This prone breathing drill is a great place to start with new clients who are initially re-learning a basic breathing pattern. Lie face down on the ground with your hands supporting your forehead. Focus on breathing in deeply through your nose and out through your mouth. You should be actively trying to inhale air into your abdomen and expand laterally through your midsection with each breath. Actively try to breath out on each exhalation, by contracting your abdomen. Perform for 1-2 minutes.

90/90 PRI BREATHING WITH BALLOON OR STRAW

Lie on your back with your hips and knees flexed to 90 degrees and your heels placed on the seat of a chair or box. Breathe in deeply through your nose while focusing on expanding your abdomen and rib cage laterally. Breathe out forcefully through your mouth, focusing on depressing your ribs inferiorly and expelling all of the air in your lungs. Following the end of the first exhalation slightly posteriorly tilt your pelvis by driving your heels into the chair, lifting your butt about 2 inches off the ground. Hold the posterior tilted position for the remainder of the exercise and complete 4 more breathe cycles. Following the 4th breathe relax, drop your hips and repeat the drill 1-2 more times.

而傳統上,我們在進行伸展時都會以「秒數」為單位,但現在可以改成以「10個好的呼吸」做為單位,這不僅強化伸展的效果,而且讓選手的心靈更專注於動作。

■ ACTIVE BOX HIP FLEXOR WITH BREATHING

■ LATERAL SQUAT WITH BREATHING

■ WALLSLIDE WITH BREATHING

■ T-SPINE MOBILIZATION WITH BREATHING

此文章轉載自《山姆伯伯工作坊》,原題為《伸展時,換成10個深呼吸》,原文請按此

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